Risks of a hysterectomy

A hysterectomy used to be the first choice when it came to the treatment of problem periods - but the number of hysterectomies being performed is on the decline.

It's estimated that around 55,000 hysterectomies are still performed in the UK every year.

Typically, hysterectomies are used to treat heavy periods, fibroids and to manage symptoms of endometriosis. For some women, they are necessary to treat cancer, but this is a rare reason for hysterectomy.

Most of these operations will go smoothly.

However, there are risks associated with this surgery, and women should carefully weigh up their options, and also look at alternatives to hysterectomy before making their choice.

A good gynaecologist will be happy to go through the pros and cons of each procedure.  

What are the risks of a hysterectomy?

  • Bleeding. Haemorrhaging is a risk (albeit small) of any major operation like a hysterectomy. A blood transfusion may be required if this happens during the operation.
  • Damage to the urinary system. In around one per cent of cases, surgery damages the ureter. Occasionally, the bladder or is affected, which may lead to complications such as infection, incontinence and a frequent need to urinate.
  • Infection. Post-operative infections are always a risk after an operation. Antibiotics are usually used to treat them.
  • Thrombosis. Because a hysterectomy is a serious operation that causes you to remain immobile, there’s always a risk a blood may block blood circulation – which is known as thrombosis. Moving around and anticoagulant drugs can help reduce this risk.
  • Vaginal issues. A hysterectomy that removes the top of the vagina may heighten the risk of prolapse.
  • Problems with the ovaries. Not every hysterectomy removes the ovaries (oophorectomy). However, even if you opt to keep your ovaries they may stop functioning within five years after a hysterectomy. This will mean an earlier menopause, which can increase your risk of osteoporosis.
  • Early menopause. Menopausal symptoms are usually triggered when the ovaries stop functioning or after an oophorectomy. Symptoms can include, anxiety, insomnia, hot flushes and night sweats.

Dangers of a general anaesthetic

Having a General Anaesthetic is not risk-free. Serious problems occur in around one in every ten thousand anaesthetics. This may include:

  • Allergic reaction

  • Nerve damage

  • Death

Statistics show there’s a small risk of death during a General Anaesthetic - to put this in perspective, the risk is between one in one hundred thousand to one in two hundred thousand. Your risk rate may go up if you’re overweight or have underlying health problems. 

Are there alternatives to hysterectomy?

Women who wish to avoid hysterectomy but solve the issue of heavy, painful periods may like to consider fibroid removal using myomectomy and ablation. These used to done under General Anaesthetic, but the latest and safest techniques mean you can walk in to a clinic to have these done – and walk out again in the same day – no anaesthetic required.

Mr Francis Gardner is Consultant Gynaecologist and Clinical Director of Gynaecology at Queen Alexandra Hospital Portsmouth and is in private practice in Harley Street. He says: “Ambulatory gynaecology – also known as ‘Office Gynaecology’ has many advantages over a hysterectomy and is a far less invasive.”

He explains: “Use of these techniques can mean women can avoid the risk of a GA (general anaesthetic), along with a reduction in surgical complications. Using oral pain relief a few hours before the operation along with a local anesthetic means that patients experience little discomfort. In one study, which asked patients who’d had office gynaecology procedures to score any pain or discomfort out of 10, the average rating was just 2.4.”

Less risk of infection with office gynaecology

Apart from low levels of discomfort, office gynaecology has other obvious advantages. “There is also less chance of acquiring an infection,” points out Mr Gardner. “The operation can be completed in minutes, allowing the patient to walk out of the clinic. This, in turn, reduces the problems of thrombosis as the patient is not having to spend long periods of time recovering in bed.”

“A hysteroscopy - where the lining of the womb (uterus) can be assessed by direct visualisation with a telescope (hysteroscope) and a small camera – can identify whether there are fibroids and polyps. These can be removed either during this assessment, or at another appointment using the MyoSure system. This is a special telescope which allows a piece of equipment to be passed through it which treats the fibroids and polyps without any cuts or scars.”

The safest ablation?

This in its self, can help with problems associated with fibroids, such as heavy bleeding. However, fibroids can re-grow. If women have completed their families, an endometrial ablation with the NovaSure can be offered.

Mr Gardner says: “An endometrial ablation is an alternative to hysterectomy that works by treating just the womb lining rather than removing the whole womb. There are many different ways of performing this, including using laser energy, microwave energy, hot water and a heated cutting wire. However, the leading ablation is NovaSure Endometrial Ablation which uses a rapid delivery (Maximum 120 seconds) of controlled radio frequency energy with a measured scientific endpoint to ensure safe and reliable ablation.”

“Once any fibroids have been removed, the NovaSure ablation offers very rapid treatment. It takes an average of 90 seconds to perform the procedure. It can be done at any point in the menstrual cycle. Post procedure pain is minimised because the inflammatory products of the ablation are evacuated during the procedure.”


A medication that reduces sensation. Full medical glossary
A medication that prevens blood from clotting, or which reduces the likelihood of the blood to clot. Full medical glossary
A fluid produced by the liver, which helps the fat ingested in food to combine with the digestive juices in the gut. Full medical glossary
The organ that stores urine. Full medical glossary
A fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. Full medical glossary
Abnormal, uncontrolled cell division resulting in a malignant tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. Full medical glossary
A condition that is linked to, or is a consequence of, another disease or procedure. Full medical glossary
Relating to the endometrium. Full medical glossary
A condition in which tissue that normally lines the uterus (womb) of a woman is found outside the uterus or in other parts of the body. Full medical glossary
A benign tumour, most often in the uterus. Full medical glossary
Benign tumours, most often in the uterus. Full medical glossary
A viral infection affecting the respiratory system. Full medical glossary
The basic unit of genetic material carried on chromosomes. Full medical glossary
Any agent that reduces or abolishes sensation, affecting the whole body. Full medical glossary
The surgical removal of the uterus (womb). Full medical glossary
A tube equipped with a light source and either a small camera or an optical system, used to examine the inside of the uterus (womb). Full medical glossary
Examination of the inside of the uterus by endoscopy, using an instrument called a hysteroscope inserted through the vagina and cervix. Full medical glossary
The involuntary passage of urine or faeces. Full medical glossary
Invasion by organisms that may be harmful, for example bacteria or parasites. Full medical glossary
A large abdominal organ that has many important roles including the production of bile and clotting factors, detoxification, and the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Full medical glossary

The time of a woman’s life when her ovaries stop releasing an egg (ovum) on a monthly cycle, and her periods cease

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The monthly sequence by which a woman’s body prepares for potential fertilisation of an egg released from the ovaries, involving thickening of the uterus lining and then shedding of the lining when pregnancy does not occur. Full medical glossary
A condition resulting in brittle bones due to loss of bony tissue. Full medical glossary
Female reproductive organs situated one on either side of the uterus (womb). They produce egg cells (ova) and hormones in a monthly cycle. Full medical glossary
A craving to eat non-food substances such as earth or coal. Full medical glossary
A growth on the surface of a mucous membrane (a surface that secretes mucus, lining any body cavity that opens to the outside of the body). Full medical glossary
Growths on the surface of a mucous membrane (a surface that secretes mucous), lining any body cavity that opens to the outside of the body. Full medical glossary
Displacement of part of the body below its normal site. Full medical glossary
The formation of a blood clot. Full medical glossary
A tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Full medical glossary
The womb, where embryo implantation occurs and the growing foetus is nourished. Full medical glossary
The muscula passage, forming part of the femal reproductive system, between the cervix and the external genitalia. Full medical glossary
Relating to the sense of sight (vision). Full medical glossary
The uterus. Full medical glossary