Tests and Screening

The correct treatment for any disorder or disease is utterly dependent on getting the diagnosisThe process of determining which condition a patient may have. right first, which is the reason why we place a great emphasis on this fundamental approach. Patients increasingly want to know for themselves more about their own health status and modern diagnostic technology is allowing this to happen. 

Each article is written by a leading diagnostic expert. Click on the article title to find information about diagnosing disease (pathology), details of the types of tests that the doctors recommend and where you can get direct access to latest diagnostic facilities. Click on the Consultant's name to see their qualifications, the extent of their experience and where they practice.

  • Genetic Profile, Diagnosis and Prognosis

The behaviour of various diseases including cancerAbnormal, uncontrolled cell division resulting in a malignant tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. is often predicted by our genes. According to our personal geneticRelating to the genes, the basic units of genetic material. fingerprints we are naturally predisposed to various pathologies. Furthermore, our genes will also inform our clinical prognosisAn assessment of the likely progress of a condition. as well as which medicines we are most likely to respond to.

About tests and screening

Why do Patients with Breast Cancer need Gene Testing?

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The Practical Application of Genetic Biomarkers in the Individualised Treatment of Breast Cancer

The latest diagnostic and prognostic technology allows clinicians to define appropriate treatment regimens based entirely on the needs and DNAThe building blocks of the genes in almost all living organisms - spelt out in full as deoxyribonucleic acid. of the individual patient. Choice of breast cancerAbnormal, uncontrolled cell division resulting in a malignant tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. treatment increasingly depends on your personal mix of geneThe basic unit of genetic material carried on chromosomes. markers and there is now a new diagnostic test (the EndoPredict) that can provide important information about the way that a tumourAn abnormal swelling. is likely to behave at a geneticRelating to the genes, the basic units of genetic material. level.

Understanding the Clinical Implications of Genetic Testing

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Following the Human Genome Project, laboratory DNAThe building blocks of the genes in almost all living organisms - spelt out in full as deoxyribonucleic acid. testing has become fast, increasingly accurate and directly available to all of us. This form of geneticRelating to the genes, the basic units of genetic material. analysis is the future of diagnostic-led personalised medicine. It does not get more personal.

Identification of new gene variants linked to Bowel Cancer

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Cancer Research UK funded scientists have discovered four new geneticRelating to the genes, the basic units of genetic material. variants linked to bowelA common name for the large and/or small intestines. cancerAbnormal, uncontrolled cell division resulting in a malignant tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. by combining data from three major genome studies, a study published in Nature Genetics shows. Pooling the data in this way created the largest study of its kind, involving over 45,000 volunteers with and without bowel cancer, allowing previously undetected genetic sites to be pinpointed.

Introduction to Pathology

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Pathology, according to The Royal College of Pathologists is; “the hidden science that every day saves lives by helping doctors to make the right decisions.”

As Dr Nigel Kellow points out in his excellent ‘Pain Management’ article, there are laboratory tests for pretty well every known substance in the body. These substances are normally either supposed to be present, or depending on amount mark a certain pathological (disease) state. As a result, laboratory testing combined with symptoms is the traditional first step to making a medical diagnosisThe process of determining which condition a patient may have..

Understanding the results of your pathology report

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Introduction

To most people a standard pathology laboratory list of results is more akin to an Egyptian obelisk than anything actually meaningful or useful.This article provides our own plain English equivalent of the Rosetta Stone in order to translate some of the pathological hieroglyphs.

Diagnosis & screening for tests and screening

Understanding the results of your pathology report

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Introduction

To most people a standard pathology laboratory list of results is more akin to an Egyptian obelisk than anything actually meaningful or useful.This article provides our own plain English equivalent of the Rosetta Stone in order to translate some of the pathological hieroglyphs.

High cholesterol is inevitable for some

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If you have very high cholesterolA substance present in many tissues and an important constituent of cell membranes although high concentrations of a certain type of cholesterol in the blood are unhealthy. levels in your bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. it may be due to a geneThe basic unit of genetic material carried on chromosomes. defect. This form of inherited high cholesterol is called familial hypercholesterolaemiaHigh levels of cholesterol in the blood. (FH). This problem affects 1 in 500 people and can cause cholesterol levels higher than 7.5mmol/L (desired level is less than 5mmol/L) in an adult and can lead to early heart disease in the form of anginaA central chest pain caused by insufficient oxygen supply to the heart. or heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction..

Treatment options for tests and screening

Why do Patients with Breast Cancer need Gene Testing?

By Contact

The Practical Application of Genetic Biomarkers in the Individualised Treatment of Breast Cancer

The latest diagnostic and prognostic technology allows clinicians to define appropriate treatment regimens based entirely on the needs and DNAThe building blocks of the genes in almost all living organisms - spelt out in full as deoxyribonucleic acid. of the individual patient. Choice of breast cancerAbnormal, uncontrolled cell division resulting in a malignant tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. treatment increasingly depends on your personal mix of geneThe basic unit of genetic material carried on chromosomes. markers and there is now a new diagnostic test (the EndoPredict) that can provide important information about the way that a tumourAn abnormal swelling. is likely to behave at a geneticRelating to the genes, the basic units of genetic material. level.

Diabetes and Diagnostics

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Maintaining bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. glucoseA simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body. levels at the optimum level is crucial to health; abnormally high or low glucose sugar levels are dangerous and if very severe can put a person into a coma. The normal healthy body copes with the daily demands by producing higher or lower amounts of insulinA hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that acts to lower blood glucose levels. to either rapidly metaboliseTo break down or process substances in the body. excess sugar, or to reduce the rate at which it is taken from the blood. For people with diabetesA disorder caused by insufficient or absent production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas, or because the tissues are resistant to the effects., this finely controlled feedback mechanism no longer works properly, which is why measuring glucose levels becomes so important.  

New imaging techniques for the assessment of heart disease in patients with diabetes

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Nearly 80% of patients with type 2 diabetesA disorder caused by insufficient or absent production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas, or because the tissues are resistant to the effects. suffer from cardiovascular illness, with coronary artery diseaseNarrowing of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle, leading to symptoms such as angina and sometimes to a heart attack or myocardial infarction (CAD) representing the major component of this disease. Approximately 10–15% of patients admitted to hospital with a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction. (myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply. This is commonly known as a heart attack.) and 20% of patients dying from coronaryRelating to the arteries supplying the heart itself. heart disease (CHD) have diabetes as a contributing factor. In general, diabetic patients have more extensive atherosclerosisDisease leading to fatty deposits in the inner walls of the arteries, which reduce and may eventually obstruct blood flow. with a higher prevalence of multi-vessel CAD and frequent silent heart attacks (without chest pain). Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity appear significantly worse in those with diabetes than those without. Diabetes is therefore placing a large burden on our health care system, both directly and indirectly.

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