An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin lining of the anal canal, known as the mucosa. Anal fissures are very common in young children but they can occur in people of all ages. In adults, fissures can be caused by constipation, straining to pass hard stools, or by long periods of diarrhoea. In older adults anal fissures can occur as a result of decreased blood flow to the area. Anal fissures are also common in women following childbirth and in people with inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease. This section describes the treatment options from Botox to surgery and the expected recovery outcomes.